How to download Xbox One X 4K game assets on your regular Xbox One

With the Xbox One X around the corner, the regular old Xbox One will allow you to begin preparing for the big day by downloading 4K assets in advance.

The Xbox One X is a 4K behemoth capable of running games at UHD resolutions with 60 frames per second and HDR. Dozens of games are slated to receive free updates to take advantage of the X’s significant 6TF power boost, and you can begin preparing for that eventuality today.

In the latest 1710 update slated for launch in October 2017, the Xbox will gain the ability to download 4K assets early to help prepare for the transfer to the Xbox One X, either via local storage or network transfer. Naturally, the 4K assets won’t make your games look better on your existing Xbox One, you’ll need the X for that. This just helps you get ready to make the move across.

Here’s how to take advantage of the new 4K assets and check to see whether they have downloaded.

  1. Open up the Guide by pressing the Xbox button on your controller.
  2. Navigate to the right using the joystick to the System cogwheel.

  3. Use the “A” button to access Settings.
  4. Use the joystick and “A” button to access System.
  5. Use the joystick and “A” button to select Backup & transfer.

  6. Put a check in the box which says Download 4K game content.

  7. Press the “B” button to go back to the System menu.
  8. Now select Updates with the “A” button.
  9. Put a check in the box that says Keep my games & apps up to date.

Now, when you have enough storage space, the Xbox One will begin updating your games automatically with “Enhanced” 4K assets. Like it says in the warning, these file sizes can be astronomically huge, and the Xbox currently doesn’t give you a great deal of control when it comes to downloading assets for specific games.

You can check whether a game has installed 4K assets or not using the following method, usable as of the 1710 Xbox update.

Check whether 4K assets are installed

  1. Open up the Guide by pressing the Xbox button on your controller.
  2. Navigate down to the Games & apps button shown here.

  3. If a game is downloading 4K assets, it should appear in the Updates tab.
  4. You can check if a game has 4K assets by selecting it, by pressing Right bumper, left bumper, menu and view simultaneously.

  5. You will see this screen depicting “Assets installed,” if you see an “X,” that means the game is Xbox One X-ready.

Admittedly, this functionality is a little clunky, but it probably won’t be used a great deal after this year, as the Xbox One X will download 4K assets automatically.

Next, you’ll want to learn how to move those games from your Xbox One to your Xbox One X. There are multiple ways how to achieve that, listed in the link below.

How to move your games from one Xbox One to another

For more information on the Xbox One X or further help with the latest Xbox update, see the links below.

New Apple Check out may possibly be much too high priced for some with $10 regular monthly cellular system

The Apple Check out Collection 3, which went on sale Friday, arrives with expenditures that never apply to an old-fashioned wristwatch.

Which is just one cause Sandoval Moreira, a 30-12 months-old Lyft driver from South San Francisco, has not committed to finding just one. Moreira, who has an more mature Apple Check out, is tempted by the new version, which would let him to stream songs via his check out with a $10-for each-month cellular system.

But “I never know if owning songs on your wrist is worth” the further cash, Moreira explained.

The lowest-priced Collection 3 smartwatch with GPS and a cellular connection expenditures $399. Without having cellular, it expenditures $329. And which is for the lesser dimension — the 1.7-inch version expenditures $359. And if you want just one in black stainless metal, with a Milanese loop band, which is $799.

The 4 huge U.S. carriers — AT&T, Verizon, Sprint and T-Mobile — are every charging $10 for each month further to include the Check out to cell phone plans. Phone calls made via the product use the exact same number and system as the cell phone.

Even however the cellular model’s promoting position is that it will do the job with no an Apple iphone close by, it even now wants to be paired with an Apple iphone 6 or later on product.

An further $120 for each 12 months will be much too high priced for lots of likely consumers, explained Geoff Blaber, a investigation vice president for CCS Insight.

“Five pounds a month would be a good beginning position, but ultimately it wants to be lessen even now,” Blaber explained. “In the situation of the Apple Check out, it works by using a very small total of information and folks have currently compensated for (a cellular) system. 10 pounds is a shortsighted roadblock to wider adoption.”

Some analysts consider the new check out even so will promote well. Gene Munster with venture agency Loup Ventures estimates Apple will promote 10 million far more watches in 2018 owing to the new cellular product as well as a slight price reduction for Apple Check out Collection 1 (which is now $20 less expensive).

Chayce O’Neal of San Francisco explained that with the most recent check out, he can obtain phone calls in locations the place he ordinarily doesn’t have his cell phone close by — like the seashore.

“Having the function … is big,” the 28-12 months-old IT operations professional explained.

Mobile support on the Check out may possibly force far more developers to generate apps for it, explained Amir Ghodrati, director of marketplace insights for app analytics agency App Annie. Out of far more than 2 million apps in the App Retailer, only about 20,000 do the job with the Apple Check out, he explained, and those people could turn into far more useful when consumers have on the product with no their cell phone close by.

On Friday, when the Apple iphone 8 and 8 Furthermore telephones also went on sale, approximately 50 folks were being in the stroll-up line 10 minutes in advance of the Union Square keep opened — a lesser crowd than in past many years. Apple has ever more emphasized on-line purchases to discourage huge queues.

Michael Ryaboy, 16, had waited considering that 11 p.m. Thursday to get his hands on the most current Apple Check out simply because he preferred to watch textual content messages in class. “The instructors cannot see it,” he explained.

It will not be a low-priced trick. Michael has an Android smartphone, so he wants an Apple iphone for the Check out to do the job. He regarded shopping for an Apple iphone 8, but soon after seeking around in the keep, he resolved to wait until the Apple iphone X — Apple’s top quality cell phone, with a function to unlock it via deal with recognition — comes in suppliers in November. The beginning price of the X is $999.

Benny Evangelista and Wendy Lee are San Francisco Chronicle staff members writers. Email: bevangelista@, Twitter: @chroniclebenny, @thewendylee


How substantially would you pay out for an LTE Apple Watch and regular support? [Poll]

Past week Bloomberg claimed that Apple is planning to release a new Apple Watch with mobile connectivity sometime afterwards this calendar year. All four major U.S. carriers are said to be on board, but pricing specifics for each the components and support are at the moment mysterious.

It seems reasonable to assume the mobile Apple Watch to carry each a components top quality above existing models as very well as a regular support demand for network accessibility. If which is the circumstance, how substantially would you be eager to pay out for mobile connectivity?

Sony A6500

A person chance is Apple could acquire the similar technique to mobile Apple Watches that they acquire with mobile iPads. Every Wi-Fi only iPad has a foundation price, and incorporating developed-in mobile connectivity provides $130 to that. For illustration, the 9.7-inch iPad fees $329 with out mobile and $459 with mobile. The 12.9-inch iPad Professional commences at $799 and jumps to $929 for the similar storage but with mobile.

Apple Watch Series 2 at the moment commences at $369 for 38mm and $399 for 42mm models. If Apple extra the $130 charge for mobile using the iPad technique, the mobile Apple Watch starting off price could be $499 for 38mm and $529 for 42mm.

That would drive up the price for aluminum models close to what stainless metal models charge nowadays: $549 for 38mm and $599 for 42mm. Insert $130 to all those price ranges and you get $679 for 38mm and $729 for stainless metal and mobile.

Yet another chance is Apple could provide mobile at the existing Apple Watch Series 2 price ranges and provide a non-mobile edition at the existing Apple Watch Series 1 price. Apple Watch Series 1 commences at $269 and jumps up $100 for the GPS-geared up Series 2 with a brighter show. While the price ranges would be a lot more attractive and mobile adoption would acquire off quicker, this scenario seems less very likely to me.

Acquire Our Poll

The other charge to take into consideration with a mobile Apple Watch is regular accessibility fees. I at the moment pay out for a 15GB/month information pool that my family shares among four iPhones. Sharing that information pool with a mobile iPad would charge $10-15/month which seems reasonable provided what a tablet can do on the website, but an Apple Watch would be substantially a lot more minimal.

Inserting and receiving telephone calls, messaging, and ideally streaming songs with out a nearby Iphone is attractive to me, but I’m not confident it is truly worth $10-15/month primarily with out podcast and audiobook streaming or video clip contacting.

Carriers at the moment demand $5-10/month for mobile wearables from other organizations so we’ll have to see how they technique the Apple Watch, but $60/calendar year feels improved than $120/calendar year to me primarily if you pay out a top quality for mobile components.

Acquire Our Poll

If Apple follows tradition, we may possibly see new Apple Watch components with LTE launched sometime following month together with new iPhones so remain tuned!

Verify out 9to5Mac on YouTube for a lot more Apple news:

Apple’s Main Bluetooth brings regular glucose monitoring to Apple Observe

Apple introduced at WWDC 2017 that the Apple Observe is operating Main Bluetooth, that means that it will be able to converse a lot more simply with low power Bluetooth products.

These are normally products with professional abilities that far outstrip regular health tracking. It is remarkable news and we’ve completed some analysis on the three products that had been integrated in the keynote presentation.

Dexcom Continual Glucose Observe

This is 1 that we had been fired up about. When we read rumors about Tim Cook dinner carrying a glucose keep track of we assumed there that Apple was going to be unveiling a constant glucose monitoring machine that would be in some way developed into the Observe. 

Even though we haven’t viewed that, this is still a way of receiving constant glucose monitoring on your Observe. 

According to the official site: “The Dexcom G5® Mobile constant glucose monitoring Method is the to start with fully cellular constant glucose monitoring method – sending glucose readings to your suitable good machine each and every 5 minutes.”

The G5 necessitates a sensor to be implanted less than the pores and skin making use of a hair-sized needle that the consumer inserts on their own, then a transmitter sits on top rated of the sensor and sends glucose details to the Observe. 

This is undoubtedly less labor intensive than the normal finger-pricking that is required to evaluate glucose, and the regular updates are a definite plus. 

Even though we would really like to someway see a a hundred% non-invasive alternative, the minimally-invasive Dexcom G5 appears to be like a move in the correct route.

Zepp tennis tracker

The Zepp tennis tracker is a modest machine that connects to the cope with of your tennis racket and actions a listing of variables about your swing so that you can strengthen your recreation.

According to the Zepp site, it has a pair of distinctive modes: 

“In Enjoy Tracking Mode, it actions your electric power, regularity, depth, racquet velocity, and sweet place precision. It will even demonstrate you your recreation in comparison to some of the greats, so you can see how far away you are from besting Nadal.

“In 3D provide method, it provides a intricate investigation of your swing, exhibiting backswing time, influence time, spin, racquet velocity, and ball velocity probable. 

“It then stitches all of these together to develop a 3D replication of your exact provide so you can start out racking up those aces. “

It is unclear what the app is going to appear like on the Observe, but we’ve made use of it in the past and it is really primary ability is to demonstrate on the smartphone where and how you are hitting the ball each individual time to give you details on your stroke.

No matter if the Apple Watch’s internal sensors will be made use of, or if it is really just a serious time screen, continues to be to be viewed.

Zensor ?

We don’t know a great deal about this 1. In the keynote speech, it was described as an app that can keep track of your surfboard action. 

We’ve searched around and not managed to come across any products that can monitor surfboard talent. There are a lot of apps out there for surfers but not any that we can come across with a title anything at all close to Zensor (if that is even how it is spelt).

More to arrive…

There are by now goods on the Apple website that hook up via Bluetooth so presumably these newest products are simply just the newest to take gain of these developments in Bluetooth technological innovation. As we find out about a lot more products we are going to allow you know. 

Heroes of the Storm: Regular Loot Chests Drop Charges Printed in China

Just like in Overwatch and Hearthstone, Blizzard has been forced to comply with a new Chinese legislation, which went into influence on May well 1, that will make them disclose drop premiums for loot boxes This time with Heroes of the Storm.

Surprisingly, Blizzard disclosed the bare bare minimum to comply with the legislation in this circumstance, only disclosing the drop charge for normal, non-function loot chests. They did not disclose the drop premiums for the loot chests remaining dispersed as section of the Heroes two. function, for instance, nor did they disclose the drop charge for loot chests awarded as section of leveling up.

This is the translation of the write-up, via Reddit:

In adherence to new laws, Heroes of the Storm is hereby declaring the loot upper body drop premiums.

In Heroes of the Storm, gamers can get hold of loot chests from levelling and obtaining with gems. Regular (non-function) loot chests consist of loot of 4 various rarities, particularly “Widespread”, “Unusual”, “Epic” and “Famous”.

*Probabilities of each rarity in loot chests are shown below:

  • Unusual: Common of a person each upper body
  • EPIC: Common of a person each 4.five chests
  • Famous: Common of a person each seventeen.five chests

*Figures do not implement to rerolls, function chests and distinctive chests acquired from levelling.

It really is fascinating that the numbers were being also not equipped for rerolling chests, as that is a most important usually means of investing in-activity forex. Far more than possible, this is due to the point that you cannot buy gold with your hard attained hard cash, but still, sweat fairness is a matter. You would be expecting the spirit of the legislation to still maintain up there.

It really is well worth noting that these drop rates could be just for China and not the relaxation of the entire world, but supplied how considerably press the revealing of these drop rates is obtaining, it would be shocking for Blizzard not to use these numbers around the world.

These drop premiums are marginally much better for epic items in Heroes than they are in Overwatch, the place it will take five.five Loot Containers to receive an Epic merchandise, but are about the similar for Famous items. 

Do these numbers about line up with your encounter in Heroes of the Storm? Permit us know in the reviews.

Get into our YouTube channel to uncover out which games are well worth your funds this thirty day period, which includes PREY and INJUSTICE two.

Playstation Knows It Can’t Market VR The Same Way As Regular Video Games

By February, the company reported it was surprised by how well the PSVR was selling–more than 900,000 units in four months–and talked about the need to restock certain markets that were sold out.

Now, the brand is launching its third commercial in the “Two Worlds” PSVR campaign, this time around a new game called Farpoint. The strategy remains the same–educate and delight. For both Playstation’s senior vice-president of marketing Eric Lempel and agency BBH New York chief creative officer John Patroulis, the challenges in marketing something like PSVR are decidedly different than that of a traditional console game. Instead of just showing off the cool graphics, cool story, and engaging gameplay, a huge part of the job is to show just how different–and amazing–strapping on those giant gaming goggles can be.

“It’s a new technology. You say virtual reality, and that means different things to different people, so we need to help educate gamers and the audience on just how simple it is, and what that experience looks like when you’re in the middle of it,” says Patroulis. “You’ll notice, in each of the films, it starts with the gear and the gamer putting it on. It sounds like a really small thing, but it’s showing something new that many in our audience haven’t seen yet. It illustrates how simple it is. Put on the headset, grab a couple of controllers, and away you go. That becomes part of the story, a part you don’t need with traditional console gaming.”

Part of the challenge is the very definition of VR, and how people have so far experienced it in a variety of ways. Through an immersive Oculus or Samsung-type experience, or simply watching a cool 360-video from the New York Times. It’s such a new technology, that it means different things to different people.

“Marketing VR is a challenge,” says Lempel. “This is something new that the majority of people out there don’t really know what it is, or they’ve experienced some form of it that isn’t quite Playstation VR. So going into this, there were a few things we wanted to make sure we did, which was trying to pass along some of the magic of the PSVR experience through a spot.”

Part of that was to show gamers what it would be like. All the spots start off in the real world, then it blends into the gaming world.

“We’ve been marketing games for years, but this is different,” says Lempel. “With VR it’s tough to convey, so our primary goal was to show just how immersive it was.”

Lempel says another key goal was to get the PSVR into the hands of as many people as possible. The brand put an extra effort behind retail activations, with more than a half a million trials to date. And since the technology and gameplay are so new, the brand purposely picked two very familiar environments for the first two ads–Batman and Star Wars. Even the new spot around Farpoint, drops the gamer into a familiar sci-fi shooter scene, even if the game is new.

“These are about an experience, and we’re using specific [game] titles to convey that experience,” says Patroulis. “Traditionally, when you’re marketing around a specific title you go into the narrative. What’s the story, who’s the character, and how do you bring that to life in an interesting way? Because this is so different, we didn’t spend a lot of time on narrative, in favor of look how easy this is, and look how physical it is. That’s what it became about.”

Shelves are being restocked around the world, so Playstation is hoping the next stage in its marketing campaign will inspire a similar bump in sales.

10 more handy iPhone tips that I use on a regular basis [Video]

A few weeks ago I posted about 10 handy iPhone tips that I use on a regular basis. To follow up, I’d like to share 10 additional iOS tips that I often use. Like I said before, chances are that hardcore iOS users will know most of these, but there’s usually at least one or two tips that catch users by surprise. Watch our hands-on video walkthrough for the full list.

Selecting multiple photos

In the stock Photos app, it’s possible to select multiple photos at the same time by dragging your finger across each thumbnail. This feature, which appeared in some early versions of iOS, was recently brought back in later versions of the software.

3D Touch to quickly switch between apps

3D Touch-enabled iPhones can quickly switch between the two most recent apps by performing a 3D Touch gesture on the left side of the screen and swiping to the right.

Video walkthrough

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Request Desktop Site

A long press on the refresh button in Safari’s address bar will reveal a Request Desktop Site option. If the web page features separate mobile and desktop versions, this will try to force the browser to request the desktop version.

App Store refresh

By tapping on any of the tabs at the bottom of the App Store app 10 times, you can force the app to refresh. I often use this trick to force a refresh when the App Store fails to display the latest app updates.

Print to PDF from non-3D Touch device

I used to think that the print to PDF trick was relegated to 3D Touch devices only, but that’s not true. By performing a simple two-finger pinch on the print preview, you can view the PDF-formatted version of the content you’re viewing, and share the PDF using the share sheet.

Wake to Apple Music

If you’re subscribed to Apple Music, you can set an alarm in the stock Clock app to wake you to any song on the service. When editing an alarm in the Clock app, tap the Sound panel and choose Pick a song to choose music from your Apple Music library. Keep in mind that you must have the desired song saved to your library before you can set it as an alarm.

Rearrange the share sheet

A long press and drag on any of the icons in the share sheet will allow you to arrange the items to your liking. You can also long press eligible items and tap the Hide pop-up that appears to make them disappear.

Renaming folders

There are several ways to rename folders on the iPhone’s Home screen. The quickest way is to use a 3D Touch gesture on the folder and select Rename.

Markup screenshots and photos

In the Photos app, select a photo and tap the Edit button to enter editing mode. From there, tap the ellipses button to reveal the Photo Editor options and select Markup. Markup allows you to annotate photos and screenshots with text, shapes, and more.

Filter email in the Mail app

Quickly filtering Mail via the filter button in the Mail app is one of the best new additions found in iOS 10. By wielding the filter button, you can quickly drill down to specific mail rules that allow you to take a more focused glance at your email inbox.


Like I noted at the onset, it’s highly likely that you knew most of these tips, but I’m curious to see if there were any that you didn’t know. Please share your thoughts down below, and be sure to read about our previous iOS tip video.

Primetime: We Need Regular Software Upgrades

Google released the in-service Android platform version numbers a few days ago and Android Nougat, both versions 7.0 and 7.1, is the least popular version of Android stretching back to 2.3 Gingerbread. This time last year we saw something similar with the then-latest version of Android, 6.0 Marshmallow, only running on 0.7% of devices. Today that figure is at almost 30% but the most popular version is Android Lollipop, now two years old. In other words, in a year of ongoing software development and improvement, and of Google encouraging manufacturers to adopt the latest version of Android and apply regular monthly software patches, the market is in the same position with less than 1% of today’s devices running the latest version of Android.

Why is this? There is not one easy answer but one of the main reasons is because handset manufacturers (and carriers) are more into selling customers a new device than developing existing devices. They believe that customers want a bigger, better screen, a camera with more megapixels, bigger batteries and all manner of new features. It’s often a wasted effort: many customers upgrading from a two or three year old device are getting devices with features they did not know they needed. How many flagship Samsung Galaxy owners realize that their device has a heart rate monitor and regularly use it? From a customer perspective, the release of newer devices makes older handsets obsolete – especially when manufacturers drop software support for the older handsets.

Manufacturers quickly forget about their older devices as they concentrate on the more recent devices. Some manufacturers diligently update their old devices for a couple of years – Google is between two to three years for the Nexus family of devices – and then support is dropped. Other manufacturers cease support for a given device with a reason that makes no sense, stating that the older hardware would not be capable of running the newer version of the operating system when the underlying reason seems to be more, “the development teams are busy with this year’s model, sorry.” As Android has matured through the versions, the hardware requirements for newer platforms have been incrementally closer to the older version. We have, however, seen hardware manufacturers cease supporting older components for newer builds of Android, for example the Qualcomm Snapdragon 800 and 801 chips do not have official drivers for Android Nougat, meaning large swathes of devices are unlikely to ever be officially updated to the new platform.

Let’s take a look at the Apple iPhone, as this device is often considered when it comes to discussing software updates. Apple updates their older iPhone models to the latest version of iOS alongside the newer phones. Yes, some of the older iPhone models do not get the newer features and in some cases, we’ve seen an older model updated to the newer version of iOS and appears to be functionally and visually the same. However, for the purposes of explaining to the industry that 75% of their devices are updated to the current version of iOS, as Apple does with iOS 10 released last September, it does not matter that older devices are missing some of the new features. They’re running iOS 10. And let us also not forget that Apple’s new hardware has always been a refined variant of the old formula. Hardware change happens slowly in the land of the iPhone; screen sizes and resolutions have only gradually evolved over the years, and Apple concentrate on the software. Yes: Apple have the advantage of complete control over every stage of the process, from designing the chipsets, building the drivers and the underlying operating system. The diagram to describe how Android device manufacturers achieve the same process is considerably more complicated!

Google’s new version of Android, Nougat, has some changes under the skin that should encourage manufacturers to update to the new platform. One of these is supporting Google Daydream, where one of the requirements is for the device to run at least Android 7.0 Nougat. Another is seamless updating, which will make it easier for customers to update their devices. Neither of these solves the issue of the manufacturers needing to develop the software for the old device, of disparate hardware component manufacturers needing to update their device drivers. A great place for manufacturers to start is by adopting and sticking to Google’s monthly update security patch schedule and by coding these changes into their devices as and when they are released. It’s unfortunate that some manufacturers, such as HTC and Motorola, have said that they will not support Google’s monthly security patches.

Why should we care about using the newer version of the operating system on our smartphones? If not for the new features, such as Google Assistant baked into the Google Pixel smartphones, or for the often-promised stability and battery life improvements? No: we should care for running the latest version of the software on our device for the security improvements. Google have been releasing regular, monthly software patches for well over a year now and these are designed to shore up the operating system by removing discovered security vulnerabilities. Remember the Stagefright scare, the horror stories that up to a billion Android devices could be exposed to a critical security vulnerability? This is the security issue that caused Google to start to release regular monthly security patches, which fix up underlying issues in the code.

However, it seems that for the issue of device security to be truly taken seriously we may need for a particularly nasty security event to happen – with perhaps legions of Android devices taken over by a malicious application. Stagefright wasn’t it, although it looks like it scared Google into providing monthly security updates. Until then, the majority of customers aren’t going to care about receiving regular security patches because it’s a “never event.”

Trump administration may replace regular press conferences with ‘Facebook town halls’ … or Twitter

Trump press hack Sean Spicer, who continues to prove he got his job by being the most comically reliable toady in his benefactor’s gilded little swamp, continues to ratchet down expectations as to whether our next (cough) president will bother to speak to the nation’s press at all. Trump’s a low-energy guy, after all, he just doesn’t have the stamina to answer questions. He doesn’t even have the stamina to make press hack Sean Spicer answer questions.

So Sean says it’s still unclear whether or not a Trump White House would even bother having regular press meetings.

“Yeah, that’s a good question, because I think the thing that you’ve seen with Donald Trump is that he doesn’t, he doesn’t look to the past and say I’ve got to conform to these precedents. He figures out what’s the best way. And so maybe we do, you know, a series of press conferences, but maybe we do some town hall, you know, Facebook town halls. Maybe we go out and solicit input from Twitter. I don’t, I mean, the answer is we’re looking at a lot of things.”

Yes, that’s how to really turn any tough situation around: solicit input from Twitter. Who the hell needs to answer basic questions about what the policies or actions of the new administration when, alternatively, you could not answer those and instead host a series of Facebook town halls or Twitter idea-tossing with users like WhiteGenocide or guys with cartoon frogs as avatars.

But no, Sean then declared, “business as usual is over.” The media-obsessed Trump doesn’t need the “liberal” media anymore. Sean also says his boss is “not afraid of anybody” in media, which is an odd thing to say about the man who hasn’t had a press conference since last July. Trump seems to be afraid of everybody in the media who doesn’t have their own Fox News show. He gets completely unhinged by tough questioning. His response to the debates was to melt down at the first moderator to ask him a question he didn’t like, a meltdown which continued throughout the rest of the campaign.

So Sean will be protecting his boss from the scary media, lest our Pumpkinführer melt down entirely. Maybe he’ll give interviews to a few Russian outlets and call it done?

The Importance of Network in Regular Database Management System

The network is the most pertinent exposure relevant to the client-server in configuring level of the computer where the users are being able to feel appropriateness in the sense that in someplace on the network, the services they necessitate are obtainable and are accessible based on a criteria and right of access, without regard to the technologies involved. When ready to move beyond personal productivity stand-alone applications and into client-server applications, organizations must address the issues of connectivity. Initially, optimum users realize their needs to access a printer that is not physically linked to their client workstation. It is experiential that sharing data files among non-networked individuals in the same place of work can be handled by hand-carrying diskettes, but printing is more self-conscious. The first LANs installed are usually basic networking services to support this printer-sharing requirement. Now a printer anywhere in the local area can be authorized for shared use. The physical medium to accomplish this connection is the LAN cabling. Each workstation is connected to a cable that routes the transmission either directly to the next workstation on the LAN or to a hub point that routes the transmission to the appropriate destination. There are two primary LAN topologies that use Ethernet and Token Ring.
Ethernet and Token Ring are put into practice on well-defined Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) industry principles. These principles recognize the product requirement detail and afford a pledge to a fixed capacity. This standardization has encouraged hundreds of vendors to develop competitive products and in turn has caused the functionality, performance, and cost of these LAN connectivity products to improve spectacularly over the last five years. Older LAN installations that use substandard topologies will eventually require replacement. There is a basic functional difference in the way Ethernet and Token Ring topologies placed data on the cable. With the Ethernet protocol, the processor attempts to unload data onto the cable whenever it requires service. Workstations vie for the bandwidth with these attempts, and the Ethernet protocol includes the appropriate logic to resolve collisions when they occur. On the other hand, with the Token Ring protocol, the processor only attempts to put data onto the cable when there is capacity on the cable to accept the transmission. Workstations pass along a token that one after the other gives each workstation the right to put data on the network.
Up-to-the-minute expansions in the capabilities of intelligent hubs have changed the way we design LANs. Hubs owe their accomplishment to the effectiveness and healthiness of the 10BaseT protocol, which facilitate the achievement of Ethernet in a star fashion over Unshielded Twisted Pair wiring. Now commonly used, hubs provide integrated support for the different standard topologies such as Ethernet, Token Ring, and Fiber over different types of cabling. By repeating or amplifying signals where necessary, they enable the use of high quality UTP cabling in virtually every situation. Hubs have evolved to provide tremendous flexibility for the design of the physical LAN topologies in large office buildings or plants. Various design strategies are now available. They are also an effective vehicle to put management intelligence throughout the LANs in a corporation, allowing control and monitoring capabilities from a network management center. Newer token-passing protocols, such as Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Copper Distributed Data Interface, will increase in use as higher performances LANs are required. CDDI can be implemented on the same LAN cable as Ethernet and Token Ring if the original selection and installation are done carefully according to industry recommendations. FDDI usually appears first as the LAN-to-LAN Bridge between floors in large buildings. Wireless LANs offer an substitute to wiring. Instead of cabling, these LANs use the airwaves as the communications medium. Motorola provides a system—Altair—that supports standard Ethernet transmission protocols and cards. The Motorola accomplishment cables workstations together into micro cells using standard Ethernet cabling. These micro cells communicate over the airwaves to similarly configured servers. road and rail network on this frequency do not pass through outside walls, so there is little problem with interference from other users. Wireless LANs are attractive when the cost of installing cabling is high. Costs tend to be high for cabling in old buildings, in temporary installations, or where workstations move frequently. NCR affords another implementation of wireless LAN technology using publicly accessible frequencies in the 902-MHz to 928-MHz band. NCR provides proprietary cards to provide the communications protocol. This supports lower-speed communications that are subject to some interference, because so many other devices, such as remote control electronic controllers and antitheft devices use this same frequency.
It is now a well-accepted fact that LANs are the preferred vehicle to provide overall connectivity to all local and distant servers. WAN connectivity should be provided through the interconnection of the LANs. Router and bridges are devices that perform that task. Routers are the preferred technology for complex network topologies, generating efficient routing of data packets between two systems by locating and using the optimal path. They also limit the amount of traffic on the WAN by efficiently filtering and by providing support for multiple protocols across the single network. WAN bandwidth for data communications is a critical issue. In terminal-to-host networks, traffic generated by applications could be modeled, and the network would then be sized accordingly, allowing for effective use of the bandwidth. With LAN interconnections, and applications that enable users to transfer large files (such as through e-mail attachments) and images, this modeling is much harder to perform. WAN services that have recently emerged, such as Frame Relay, SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Service), and imminent ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) services, enable the suitable flexibility inherently required for these applications. Frame Relay uses efficient statistical multiplexing to provide shared network resources to users. Each access line is shared by traffic ordained for multiple locations. The access line speed is typically sized much higher than the average throughput each user is paying for. This enables peak transmissions (such as when a user transmits a large file) that are much faster because they use all available bandwidth. SMDS is a high-speed service that uses cell relay technology, which enables data, voice, and video to share the same network fabric. accessible from preferred RBOCs as a wide-area service, it supports high speeds well over 1.5 Mbps. ATM is an up-and-coming standard and set of communication technologies that span both the LAN and the WAN to create a seamless network. It provides the appropriate capabilities to support all types of voice, data, and video traffic. Its speed is defined to be 155 Mbps, with variations and technologies that may enable it to run on lower speed circuits when economically appropriate. It will operate both as a LAN and a WAN technology, providing full and transparent integration of both environments. ATM will be the most significant connectivity technology after 1995. ATM provides the set of services and capabilities that will truly enable the “computing anywhere” concept, in which the physical location of systems and data is made irrelevant to the user. It also provides the network managers with the required flexibility to respond promptly to business change and new applications. Interoperability between distributed systems is not guaranteed by just providing network-based connectivity. Systems need to agree on the end-to-end handshakes that take place while exchanging data, on session management to set up and break conversations, and on resource access strategies. Network Management is an integral part of every network. The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a well-accepted standard used to manage LANs and WANs through the management capabilities of hubs, routers, and bridges. It can be extended to provide basic monitoring performance measurements of servers and workstations. Full systems management needs much more functionality than SNMP can offer. The OSI management protocol, the Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP), which has the flexibility and capability to fully support such management requirements, will likely compete with an improved version of SNMP, SNMP V2. The existence of heterogeneous LAN environments in large organizations makes interoperability a practical reality. Organizations need and expect to view their various workgroup LANs as an integrated corporate-wide network. Citicorp, for example, is working to integrate its 100 independent networks into a single global net.1 The OSI model provides the framework definition for developers attempting to create interoperable products.2 Because many products are not yet OSI-compliant, there often is no direct correspondence between the OSI model and reality. The OSI model defines seven protocol layers and specifies that each layer be insulated from the other by a well-defined interface.
In view of the above it is evident that the physical layer is the lowest level of the OSI model and defines the physical and electrical characteristics of the connections that make up the network. It includes such things as interface specifications as well as detailed specifications for the use of twisted-pair, fiber-optic, and coaxial cables. Standards of interest at this layer for client/server applications are IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet), and IEEE 802.5 (Token Ring) that define the requirements for the network interface card (NIC) and the software requirements for the media access control (MAC) layer. Other standards here include the serial interfaces EIA232 and X.21. The data link layer defines the basic packets of data expected to enter or leave the physical network. Bit patterns, encoding methods, and tokens are known to this layer. The data link layer detects errors and corrects them by requesting retransmission of corrupted packets or messages. This layer is actually divided into two sub layers: the media access control (MAC) and the logical link control (LLC). The MAC sub layer has network access responsibility for token passing, collision sensing, and network control. The LLC sub layer operates above the MAC and sends and receives data packets and messages. Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI define the record format of the packets (frames) being communicated between the MAC layer and Network layer. The internal formats are different and without conversion workstations cannot interoperate with workstations that operate with another definition. And in this connection the network layer is responsible for switching and routing messages to their proper destinations. It coordinates the means for addressing and delivering messages. It provides for each system a unique network address, determines a route to transmit data to its destination, segments large blocks of data into smaller packets of data, and performs flow control. When a message contains more than one packet, the transport layer sequences the message packets and regulates inbound traffic flow. The transport layer is responsible for ensuring end-to-end error-free transmission of data. The transport layer maintains its own addresses that get mapped onto network addresses. Because the transport layer services process on systems, multiple transport addresses can share a single network address. Indeed, the session layer provides the services that enable applications running at two processors to coordinate their communication into a single session. A session is an exchange of messages—a dialog between two processors. This layer helps create the session, inform one workstation if the other drops out of the session, and terminate the session on request. The presentation layer is responsible for translating data from the internal machine form of one processor in the session to that of the other. The application layer is the layer to which the application on the processor directly talks. The programmer codes to an API defined at this layer. Messages enter the OSI protocol stack at this level, travel through the layers to the physical layer, across the network to the physical layer of the other processor, and up through the layers into the other processor application layer and program.
Connectivity and interoperability between the client workstation and the server are achieved through a combination of physical cables and devices, and software that implements communication protocols. One of the most important and most unnoticed parts of LAN implementation today is the physical cabling plant. A corporation’s investment in cabling is significant. For most though, it is viewed strictly as a tactical operation, a necessary expense. Implementation costs are too high, and maintenance is a no budgeted, nonexistent process. The results of this shortsightedness will be seen in real dollars through the life of the technology. Studies have shown that over 65 percent of all LAN downtime occurs at the physical layer. It is important to provide a platform to support robust LAN implementation, as well as a system flexible enough to incorporate rapid changes in technology. The trend is to standardize LAN cabling design by implementing distributed star topologies around wiring closets, with fiber between wiring closets. Desktop bandwidth requirements can be handled by copper for several years to come; however, fiber between wiring closets will handle the additional bandwidth requirements of a backbone or switch-to-switch configuration. Obviously, fiber to the desktop will provide extensive long-term capabilities; however, because of the electronics required to support various access methods in use today, the initial cost is significant. As recommended, the design will provide support for Ethernet, 4M and 16M Token Ring, FDDI, and future ATM LANs. Wiring standards include RG-58 A/U coaxial cable (thin-wire 10Base2 Ethernet), IBM Type 1 and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI for 10BaseT or Token Ring). Motorola has developed a wireless Ethernet LAN product—Altair—that uses 18-GHz frequencies. NCR’s Wave LAN provides low-speed wireless LAN support. Wireless LAN technology is useful and cost-effective when the cost of cable installation is high. In old buildings or locations where equipment is frequently moved, the cost of running cables may be excessive. In these instances wireless technology can provide an attractive alternative. Motorola provides an accomplishment that uses standard Ethernet NICs connecting a group of closely located workstations together with a transmitter.
The source of data transmission like transmitter communicates with a receiver across the room to provide the workstation server connection. Recent reductions in the cost of this technology make it attractive for those applications where the cost of cabling is more than $400 per workstation. Wireless communication is somewhat slower than wired communication. Industry tests indicate a performance level approximately one-half that of wired 10-Mbps UTP Ethernet. NCR’s substitute wireless technology, Wave LAN, is a slow-speed implementation using proprietary communications protocols and hardware. It also is subject to interference by other transmitters, such as remote control electronics, antitheft equipment, and point-of-sale devices. Ethernet is the most widely installed network topology today. Ethernet networks have a maximum throughput of 10 Mbps. The first network interface cards developed for Ethernet were much cheaper than corresponding NICs developed by IBM for Token Ring. Until recently, organizations that used non-IBM minicomputer and workstations equipment had few options other than Ethernet. Even today in a heterogeneous environment, there are computers for which only Ethernet NICs are available. The large market for Ethernet NICs and the complete definition of the specification have allowed over 100 companies to produce these cards.3 Competition has reduced the price to little more than $200 per unit. 10BaseT Ethernet is a standard that enables the implementation of the Ethernet protocol over telephone wires in a physical star configuration (compatible with phone wire installations). Its robustness, ease of use, and low cost driven by hard competition has made 10BaseT the most popular standards-based network topology. Its pervasiveness is unrivaled: In 1994, new laptop computers will start to ship with 10BaseT built in. IBM is now fully committed to support Ethernet across its product line. IBM uses the Token Ring LAN protocol as the standard for connectivity in its products. In an environment that is primarily IBM hardware and SNA connectivity, Token Ring is the preferred LAN topology option. IBM’s Token Ring implementation is a modified ring configuration that provides a high degree of reliability since failure of a node does not affect any other node. Only failure of the hub can affect more than one node. The hub isn’t electric and doesn’t have moving parts to break; it is usually stored in a locked closet or other physically secure area. Token Ring networks implement a wire transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. Older NICs will support only the 4-Mbps speed, but the newer ones support both speeds. IBM and Hewlett-Packard have announced a technical alliance to establish a single 100Mbps standard for both Token Ring and Ethernet networks. This technology, called 100VG-AnyLAN, will result in low-cost, high-speed network adapter cards that can be used in PCs and servers running on either Token Ring or Ethernet LANs. The first Any LAN products are expected in early 1994 and will cost about between $400 and $700 per port. IBM will be submitting a proposal to make the 100VG-AnyLAN technology a part of IEEE’s 802.12 (or 100Base-VG) standard, which currently includes only Ethernet.
The Ethernet procedure device may function well when the cable is lightly full but, because of rear-ender that occur when an attempt is made to put data onto a busy cable, the technique provides poor performance when the LAN utilization exceeds 50 percent. To recover from the collisions, the sender retries, which puts additional load on the network. Ethernet users avoid this problem by creating subnets that divide the LAN users into smaller groups, thus keeping a low exploitation level. In spite of the prevalent implementation of Ethernet, Token Ring installations are mounting at a fast rate for client/server applications. IBM’s commitment to Ethernet possibly will slow this success, because Token-Ring will always cost more than Ethernet. The analysis predicts a steady increase in planned Token Ring installations from the middle of 1988 until the installed base is analogous in 1996. However, this analysis does not account for the emergence of a powerful new technology which has entered the marketplace in 1993, Asynchronous Mode, or ATM. It is likely that by 1996 ATM will govern all new installations and will gradually replace accessible installations by degrees.