Shopping, songs, TV, transport … new technology has confused many sectors

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Film and TV: Netflix

Netflix has helped to change the way we watch television and film, weakening our dependence on traditional TV schedules and offering a cheaper alternative to a cinema trip.

It invested massively in shows such as The crown, Stranger Things and House of cards to stimulate the growth of subscribers. It now spends money on locking talent, including Gray & # 39; s Anatomy maker Shonda Rhimes and Ryan Murphy, the producer behind American horror story, to ensure the delivery of high-quality content.

This involves costs: content, marketing and other expenses would have exceeded subscribers' revenues by at least $ 3 billion last year. Net debt was $ 8.34 billion at the end of September. Netflix is ​​also facing increasing competition from technical giants Amazon and Apple, and from traditional media players, including Disney and WarnerMedia, who are planning to launch streaming services.

Retail: Amazon

For Jeff Bezos, the path to world domination began in his garage, where he personally prepared customer orders and brought them to the post office. This is hard to imagine now, when Amazon employs more than 600,000 people and annually sends billions of packages with the help of robots in gigantic warehouses.

Amazon gets scared of retailers around the world as they struggle to compete. In the United Kingdom, the dominance of Amazon has become almost synonymous with the shift to online spending and the decline in busy streets.

Like other tech giants, it has been criticized for using complex corporate structures to avoid tax in many countries. The employment practices have also been examined. But Amazon is counting on and trying to disrupt other sectors – cloud computing, healthcare and electronic payments to name but three. The smart devices find their way to our homes and it develops robots to drop parcels for our thresholds.

Transport: Uber

Rijtverhoorbedrijf Uber has radically changed urban transport and has not shaken any controversy. The smartphone app has generally been a runaway success among users and offers a flexible, cashless alternative to traditional taxis and public transport.

However, it bumped into the authorities in many cities and London refused to renew its operating license in 2017. Decided by scandals, including allegations of sexual harassment, Uber tried to set a calmer, more conciliatory course since Dara Khosrowshahi replaced Travis Kalanick. as chief executive.

Automotive: Tesla

Founded by a man with ambitions to fly 100 people to Mars, Tesla would never become a traditional car manufacturer. Technical entrepreneur Elon Musk wants to make Tesla a leader in the field of electric cars and puts it first in technology without drivers. Last year he said that he was convinced that Tesla would win the race before the end of 2019 to produce a complete self-driving car.

Last year, the company had to contend with production problems with its mass market Model 3 car and had to pay $ 40 million through Musk's tweets about the private ownership of the company.

Energy: Ørsted

Ørsted may not be an understanding, but it is undeniably a disruptor in a sector that is undergoing a period of drastic change. The Danish company, formerly an oil and gas company, has transformed itself into a leader in the field of offshore wind and is behind the largest offshore wind farm in the world, which opened in the Irish Sea last September.

Music: Spotify

Spotify has become a world leader in streaming music and is one of the world's best-known technology companies. It has changed the way we listen to music, giving listeners instant access to virtually every song. There have been bumps along the way, and it is a company with low margins, with a majority of revenues paid in royalties to music companies.

But it has just reported its first quarterly earnings, and its paying subscribers reached 96 million in the fourth quarter, 36% more than in the same period a year earlier. In the UK, the collapse of HMV in December for the second time in six years was a clear sign of how difficult it is for traditional music stores to compete with the disruptors.